Latest Circuit Protection Education

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Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

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Learning PLC programming is a very important skill. If your job…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

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Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

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Human-machine interfaces, or HMIs, are a critical part of nearly all…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

Textbook

The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Legal Code

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…