Categories

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Disconnect Switches Disconnects are switches designed to isolate…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

Learning PLC programming is a very important skill. If your job…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

Distance relaying is used to detect faults on long-distance lines,…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

Potential transformers step voltage up or down to prioritize…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause confusion for…