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Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

Textbook

Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Overpressure Protection Devices

Textbook

Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Valve Failure Mode

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…