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Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Valve Failure Modes

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Memory Maps and I/O Addressing

Textbook

A wise PLC programmer once told me that the first thing any aspiring…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

Visualizing the actions of P, I, and D tuning parameters using graphs…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

Learning PLC programming is a very important skill. If your job…