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The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

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Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

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To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

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While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Mechanical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Mechanical pressure-sensing elements include the bellows, the…

Use of Line Reactors

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Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

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In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

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Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

Textbook

Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…