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Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…