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Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…