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Elementary Thermodynamics

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Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

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At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

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There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

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The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

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Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Controller Output Current Loops

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The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

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Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Split-range Control

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There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Flow Switches

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A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

The Stuxnet Virus

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In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

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Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

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Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

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Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

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To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

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Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

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The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

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Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Process Flow Diagrams

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To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

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As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Polyphase AC Power

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“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Ratio Control

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Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

The Basics of Control Relays

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An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

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Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

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Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Electronic Structure

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Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

Digital Data Communication Theory

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One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Flow Switches

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A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

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Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

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Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

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Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

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One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Radiation Level Measurement

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Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

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In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

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Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Conservation Laws

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The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

Examples of PLC Systems

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Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

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An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

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Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Vibration Sensors

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Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

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There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…