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Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Electrical Resistance Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Input/Output (I/O) Capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

What is Calibration? To calibrate an instrument means to check and…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

Visualizing the actions of P, I, and D tuning parameters using graphs…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…