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Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Input/Output (I/O) capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Conservation Laws

Textbook

The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Valve Failure Mode

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…