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Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

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Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Control Valve Characterization

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Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Electrical Pressure Elements

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Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

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Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Introduction to Calculus

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Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Material Volume Measurement

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A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

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By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Problem-solving by Simplification

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A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Periodic Table of the Elements

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All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Periodic Table of the Ions

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Valve Seat Leakage

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In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

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Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

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A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

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Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

Vibration Sensors

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Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

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pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Logic programming in PLCs

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Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

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Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

High-reliability Control Systems

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As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Relation Control

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A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

Practical Topic Coverage

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Nearly every technical course teaches and tests students on…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

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Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

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A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

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Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Proportional-only Control

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Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

The Basics of Control Relays

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An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

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Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…