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Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause much confusion…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

Direction of current flow is a significant characteristic of…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

ANSI and IEEE codes dictate the use and restrictions of devices and…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

Differential current protection, much like a ground fault…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause much confusion…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…