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Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

Textbook

Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…