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DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

Textbook

Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…