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References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause confusion for…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

Textbook

First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

Textbook

The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…