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Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition to an electric…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…