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Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Practical Measures of Reliability

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In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

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Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Examples of PLC Systems

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Despite PLC properties and features changing over the years, the core…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Pneumatic Sensing Elements

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Most pneumatic instruments use a simple but highly sensitive mechanism…

Teaching Technical Theory

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Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

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In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Periodic Table of the Ions

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Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

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Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

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“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

Valve Seat Leakage

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In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

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The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

Distance relaying is used to detect faults on long-distance lines,…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

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A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Fluid Power Systems

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Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

The Concept of Integration

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Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Process Flow Diagrams

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To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

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Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

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pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

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Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

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(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

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Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

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To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

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Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Electromagnetism Basics

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The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

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As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

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Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

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The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…