Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

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Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Legal Code

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Practical Measures of Reliability

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In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

Transfer Function Analysis

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An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Problem-solving by Simplification

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A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

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A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

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The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

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RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Metering Pumps

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A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

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Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Numerical Differentiation

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As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Use of Line Reactors

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Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

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It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Polyphase AC Power

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“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

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Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

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An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Variable-area Flowmeters

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An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

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While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Split-range Control

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There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Tube and Tube Fittings

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Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Proportional-only Control

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Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

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A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

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Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

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Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

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In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

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The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

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Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Control Valve Sizing

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When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Solenoid Valves

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A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Circuit Failure Analysis

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Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

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Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

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All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Molecular Quantities

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Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

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Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

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Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Mechanical Pressure Elements

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Mechanical pressure-sensing elements include the bellows, the…

Conservation Laws

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The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

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Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

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A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

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One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

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Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

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Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

On/off Shut-off Valves

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An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

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Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

DC Motor Speed Control

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DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

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The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Introduction to Calculus

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Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…