Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Practical Measures of Reliability

Textbook

In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Pneumatic Sensing Elements

Textbook

Most pneumatic instruments use a simple but highly sensitive mechanism…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…