Practical Measures of Reliability

Textbook

In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Pneumatic Sensing Elements

Textbook

Most pneumatic instruments use a simple but highly sensitive mechanism…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Laser Spectroscopy

Textbook

A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…