Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Practical Measures of Reliability

Textbook

In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Practical Measures of Reliability

Textbook

In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…