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Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Constructing PID control systems using discrete components is a…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

Practical Measures of Reliability

Textbook

In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Overpressure Protection Devices

Textbook

Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…