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Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Human-machine interfaces, or HMIs, are a critical part of nearly all…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Disconnect Switches Disconnects are switches designed to isolate…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming Contacts and Coils

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming Contacts and Coils

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Input/Output (I/O) Capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…