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Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Logic Programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Valve Failure Modes

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Mechanical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Mechanical pressure-sensing elements include the bellows, the…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Periodic Table of the Elements

Textbook

All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…