Latest Natural Resources Education

Categories

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

Textbook

The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

What is Calibration? To calibrate an instrument means to check and…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…