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Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

Learning PLC programming is a very important skill. If your job…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

Logic Programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Constructing PID control systems using discrete components is a…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Memory Maps and I/O Addressing

Textbook

A wise PLC programmer once told me that the first thing any aspiring…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…