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Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Input/Output (I/O) Capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Human-machine interfaces, or HMIs, are a critical part of nearly all…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…