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Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

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Learning PLC programming is a very important skill. If your job…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

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Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

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The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

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An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Legal Code

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

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There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

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Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

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Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Distance (21) Protection

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A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Classical Mechanics

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Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

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An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Fluid Mechanics

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A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

Textbook

The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

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RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

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While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Fluid Power Systems

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Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

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It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Periodic Table of the Elements

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All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Proximity Switches

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A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

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At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Assessing Student Learning

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As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

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The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

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Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Flow Switches

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A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

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It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Introduction to Power System Automation

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Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Memory Maps and I/O Addressing

Textbook

A wise PLC programmer once told me that the first thing any aspiring…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…