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Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

Textbook

The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Human-machine interfaces, or HMIs, are a critical part of nearly all…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Valves can experience a number of problems, most of them either…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

Learning PLC programming is a very important skill. If your job…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

Visualizing the actions of P, I, and D tuning parameters using graphs…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…