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Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Logic Programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Pneumatic Sensing Elements

Textbook

Most pneumatic instruments use a simple but highly sensitive mechanism…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

Textbook

First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Overpressure Protection Devices

Textbook

Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

Practical Topic Coverage

Textbook

Nearly every technical course teaches and tests students on…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause confusion for…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

Visualizing the actions of P, I, and D tuning parameters using graphs…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…