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Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

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Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

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The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

Legal Code

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

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Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

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Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

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Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

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Disconnect Switches Disconnects are switches designed to isolate…

Fluid Mechanics

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A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

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An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

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Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming Contacts and Coils

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In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Introduction to Power System Automation

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Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Valve Positioners

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The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Use of Line Reactors

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Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

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All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

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In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Distance (21) Protection

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A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

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An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Polyphase AC Power

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“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

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There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

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Disconnect Switches Disconnects are switches designed to isolate…

Digital PID Controllers

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The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Proportional-only Offset

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A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Different PID Equations

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For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

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An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

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DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

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The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Electromagnetism Basics

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The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

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In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

The International System of Units

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The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

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The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

High-reliability Control Systems

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As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Periodic Table of the Ions

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Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

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Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

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Constructing PID control systems using discrete components is a…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

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The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

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Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Variable-area Flowmeters

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An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Insertion Flowmeters

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This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Tuning PID Controllers

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Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Rotary-stem Valves

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A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

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A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

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A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Integral (Reset) Control

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Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

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As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

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Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Differential (87) Current Protection

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One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Introduction to Calculus

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Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

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One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

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The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Weight-based Level Measurement

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Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Common Control Valve Problems

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Valves can experience a number of problems, most of them either…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

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First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

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Capacitance Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

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Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

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The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…