Categories

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

Distance relaying is used to detect faults on long-distance lines,…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Logic Programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

Potential transformers step voltage up or down to prioritize…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming Contacts and Coils

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

Visualizing the actions of P, I, and D tuning parameters using graphs…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Valves can experience a number of problems, most of them either…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…