Latest Digital Twinning Education

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Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Constructing PID control systems using discrete components is a…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming Contacts and Coils

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

Textbook

The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Valves can experience a number of problems, most of them either…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

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Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Calibration Errors and Testing

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The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

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As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

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A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

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Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

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Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

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Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

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Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

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A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

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Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

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A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

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Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

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The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

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In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…