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Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

Learning PLC programming is a very important skill. If your job…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming Contacts and Coils

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Valves can experience a number of problems, most of them either…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Constructing PID control systems using discrete components is a…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

Potential transformers step voltage up or down to prioritize…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

Textbook

The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

Mechanical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Mechanical pressure-sensing elements include the bellows, the…