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Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Memory Maps and I/O Addressing

Textbook

A wise PLC programmer once told me that the first thing any aspiring…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

Learning PLC programming is a very important skill. If your job…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Logic Programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

Learning PLC programming is a very important skill. If your job…

Memory Maps and I/O Addressing

Textbook

A wise PLC programmer once told me that the first thing any aspiring…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…