Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Legal Code

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…