Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…