Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…