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Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

Textbook

A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

Textbook

Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Valve Failure Mode

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Laser Spectroscopy

Textbook

A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…