Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

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The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

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Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

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A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

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Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

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A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

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pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Safety Gas Analyzers

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Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

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Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

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A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

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The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

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As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

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The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Cascade Control

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A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Split-range Control

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There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Laser Spectroscopy

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A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

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Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Instrument Identification Tags

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Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

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I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

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Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

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Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

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To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Problem-solving by Simplification

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A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

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Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

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Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

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Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

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Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

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Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

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Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

What is Electrical Power?

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Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

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The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Tube and Tube Fittings

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Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

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A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…

Introduction to Power System Automation

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Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Analyzer Sample Systems

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Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

The Basics of Control Relays

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An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Derivative (Rate) Control

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The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

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Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

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In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

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The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Instrument Identification Tags

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Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

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Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

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Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

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Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Process Flow Diagrams

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To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Relation Control

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A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

Practical Topic Coverage

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Nearly every technical course teaches and tests students on…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

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The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

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Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

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Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…