Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

Textbook

A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

Practical Measures of Reliability

Textbook

In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…