Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

Textbook

A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Laser Spectroscopy

Textbook

A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…