Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Practical Topic Coverage

Textbook

Nearly every technical course teaches and tests students on…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

Textbook

A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…