Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Before we begin our discussion on process control, we must define a…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

Textbook

A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Continuous Float Level Transmitters

Textbook

Perhaps the simplest form of solid or liquid level measurement is with…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…