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Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…