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Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Feedback Control System Components Before we begin our discussion on…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Valves can experience a number of problems, most of them either…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

Textbook

Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…