Latest Preventive / Predictive Maintenance Education

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Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

Learning PLC programming is a very important skill. If your job…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Physical Layer

Textbook

Layer 1 of the OSI Reference Model is where we define the…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Laser Spectroscopy

Textbook

A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Practical Measures of Reliability

Textbook

In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…