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Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Valve Failure Modes

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Capacitance Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…