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4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Pneumatic Sensing Elements

Textbook

Most pneumatic instruments use a simple but highly sensitive mechanism…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Practical Measures of Reliability

Textbook

In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

Valve Failure Modes

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

Textbook

The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Constructing PID control systems using discrete components is a…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Overpressure Protection Devices

Textbook

Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Conservation Laws

Textbook

The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…