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Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

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A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

Textbook

As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause confusion for…