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ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

Potential transformers step voltage up or down to prioritize…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Basics of Electrical Current

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Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

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While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

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Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

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Disconnect Switches Disconnects are switches designed to isolate…

What is Electrical Power?

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Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Differential (87) Current Protection

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One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

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The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

Distance relaying is used to detect faults on long-distance lines,…

Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Digital PID Algorithms

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Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

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“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

Potential transformers step voltage up or down to prioritize…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Numerical Differentiation

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As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

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As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

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Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

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One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Calibration Procedures in Linear, Non-Linear and Discrete Instruments

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As described earlier in this chapter, calibration refers to the…

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

Textbook

First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Human-machine interfaces, or HMIs, are a critical part of nearly all…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

Textbook

The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Capacitance Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

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As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…