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Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Disconnect Switches Disconnects are switches designed to isolate…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

Textbook

Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Electrical Resistance Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook