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Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Human-machine interfaces, or HMIs, are a critical part of nearly all…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Disconnect Switches Disconnects are switches designed to isolate…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Logic Programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

Learning PLC programming is a very important skill. If your job…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

Textbook

The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

What is Calibration? To calibrate an instrument means to check and…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Conservation Laws

Textbook

The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…