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Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Input/Output (I/O) Capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Laser Spectroscopy

Textbook

A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Memory Maps and I/O Addressing

Textbook

A wise PLC programmer once told me that the first thing any aspiring…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

The two “process variables” we rely on most heavily in the…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…