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On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

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An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

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Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

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The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

AC Motor Braking

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There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

AC Motor Speed Control

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AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

Use of Line Reactors

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Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Cascade Control

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A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

DC Motor Speed Control

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DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

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The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Controller Output Current Loops

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The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

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In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

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Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Limit Switches

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A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Integral (Reset) Control

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Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

AC Motor Braking

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There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Valve Positioners

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The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

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Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

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Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

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To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

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A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming Contacts and Coils

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In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

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An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

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Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Digital PID Controllers

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The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Controller Output Current Loops

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The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Cascade Control

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A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

AC Motor Speed Control

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AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

DC Motor Speed Control

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DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

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Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

High-reliability Control Systems

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As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

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Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

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As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

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Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

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Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

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Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Derivative (Rate) Control

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The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

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Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

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There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

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It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

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The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

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The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

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The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

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Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Interconnected Generators

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Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

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A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

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Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

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The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

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I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

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The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

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Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause confusion for…