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On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

Textbook

An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

Classical Mechanics

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Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Fluid Mechanics

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A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

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The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Different PID Equations

Textbook

For better or worse, there are no fewer than three different forms of…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Constructing PID control systems using discrete components is a…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…