Latest CNC Machines Education

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Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

Linearity of Measurement Instruments The purpose of calibration is to…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

What is Calibration? To calibrate an instrument means to check and…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Disconnect Switches Disconnects are switches designed to isolate…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Electronic Structure

Textbook

Earlier in this chapter you were shown a model of a nitrogen atom with…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Periodic Table of the Elements

Textbook

All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…