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How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

A very helpful method for understanding the operation of proportional,…