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4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Conservation Laws

Textbook

The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

Visualizing the actions of P, I, and D tuning parameters using graphs…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Analysis of Practical Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

To better understand the design and operation of self-balancing…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

Textbook

Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Human-machine interfaces, or HMIs, are a critical part of nearly all…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Memory Maps and I/O Addressing

Textbook

A wise PLC programmer once told me that the first thing any aspiring…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

Practical Topic Coverage

Textbook

Nearly every technical course teaches and tests students on…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Practical Measures of Reliability

Textbook

In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…