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Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Pneumatic Sensing Elements

Textbook

Most pneumatic instruments use a simple but highly sensitive mechanism…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

Textbook

A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

Textbook

Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Textbook

A vertical column of fluid generates a pressure at the bottom of the…