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Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

Textbook

The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Logic Programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause confusion for…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Valves can experience a number of problems, most of them either…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Disconnect Switches Disconnects are switches designed to isolate…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Level Switches

Textbook

A level switch is one detecting the level of liquid or solid (granules…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming Contacts and Coils

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

Visualizing the actions of P, I, and D tuning parameters using graphs…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…