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Electromagnetism Basics

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The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

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There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

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The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

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To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Vibration Physics

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One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Controller Output Current Loops

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The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

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To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

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Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

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The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

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An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

AC Motor Braking

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There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

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A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Valves can experience a number of problems, most of them either…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

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In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

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Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

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Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Practical PID Controller Features

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In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…