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PID Control Terminology

Textbook

PID control can be a confusing concept to understand. Here, a brief…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Functional Diagrams: the Flow of Information within a Control System

Textbook

A unique form of technical diagram for describing the abstract…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Constructing PID control systems using discrete components is a…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

Linearity of Measurement Instruments The purpose of calibration is to…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Overpressure Protection Devices

Textbook

Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…