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Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

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Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

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A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Input/Output (I/O) Capabilities of PLCs

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Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

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An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

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A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

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Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

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Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Supervisory Control

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In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Digital PID Controllers

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The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Design-based Fortifications

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A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Digital Data Communication Theory

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One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

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In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Policy-based Fortifications

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These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

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There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Conservation Laws

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The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

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The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Valve Packing

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Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Logic Programming in PLCs

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Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

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Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Variable-area Flowmeters

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An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Split-range Control

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There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Digital PID Algorithms

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Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

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Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

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At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Molecular Quantities

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Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

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While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

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In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

True Mass Flowmeters

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Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

Textbook

The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

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Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…