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What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

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I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

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A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Digital Data Communication Theory

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One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

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An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

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Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Design-based Fortifications

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A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

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“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

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An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

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Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

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Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Policy-based Fortifications

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These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Digital PID Controllers

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The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Examples of PLC Systems

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Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Supervisory Control

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In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

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At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Input/Output (I/O) Capabilities of PLCs

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Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

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An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Introduction to Modbus

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Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

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Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

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There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

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In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Design-based Fortifications

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A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

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Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

On/off Shut-off Valves

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An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

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Human-machine interfaces, or HMIs, are a critical part of nearly all…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

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In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Laser Spectroscopy

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A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Digital Data Communication Theory

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One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

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Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

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There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

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Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

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Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

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A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

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Potential transformers step voltage up or down to prioritize…

Level Sensor Accessories

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Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Split-range Control

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There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

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A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

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A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

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As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Rotary-stem Valves

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A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

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In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

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One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

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Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…