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Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

Textbook

Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Examples of PLC Systems

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are essentially nothing more than…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Input/Output (I/O) Capabilities of PLCs

Textbook

Every programmable logic controller must have some means of receiving…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

Textbook

A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Solenoid Valves

Textbook

A very common form of on/off valve used for pneumatic and hydraulic…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…