Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Interposing Relays in PLCs

Textbook

In addition to directly performing logic functions, electromechanical…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

4-wire (“self-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Distance (21) Protection

Textbook

A form of protection against faults on long-distance power lines is…

Safety Gas Analyzers

Textbook

Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

The Stuxnet Virus

Textbook

In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Pneumatic Sensing Elements

Textbook

Most pneumatic instruments use a simple but highly sensitive mechanism…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Comparison of Op-Amp Circuits With Analogous Pneumatic Mechanisms

Textbook

Self-balancing pneumatic instrument mechanisms are very similar to…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Programmable logic controllers are built to input various signal types…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…