Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

Textbook

Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Use of Line Reactors

Textbook

Regulating the electric power sent to an electric motor is a task…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Insertion Flowmeters

Textbook

This section does not describe a particular type of flowmeter, but…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

Textbook

A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook