Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

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The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Legal Code

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

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Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

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Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Control Valve Characterization

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Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

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While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

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In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

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A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Thermistors and Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Textbook

One of the simplest classes of temperature sensor is one where…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

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Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

New Content

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Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

The s Variable: Euler’s Relation and Phasor Expressions of Waveforms

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A powerful mathematical concept useful for analyzing practically any…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

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First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

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The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

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Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

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Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Weighfeeders

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A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Periodic Table of the Ions

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Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

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A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Capacitive Level Measurement

Textbook

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

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The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Basics of pH Measurement in Industrial Control

Textbook

Hydrogen ion activity in aqueous (water-solvent) solutions is a very…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…