Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

AC Motor Braking

Textbook

There are several different methods useful for causing an AC induction…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

Digital Representation of Text

Textbook

Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

What is Electrical Power?

Textbook

Since we often use electricity to convey energy from one location to…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

AC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

AC induction motors are based on the principle of a rotating magnetic…

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

Textbook

pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Teaching Technical Theory

Textbook

Learning is not merely a process of information transfer. It is first…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

Overpressure Protection Devices

Textbook

Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…