What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

High-reliability Control Systems

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As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

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A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

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The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

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The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

Vibration Sensors

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Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Vibration Physics

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One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Legal Code

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Digital Data Communication Theory

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One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

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The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

True Mass Flowmeters

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Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Split-range Control

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There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

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An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

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As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

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In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Electrical Pressure Elements

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Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

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Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

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The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Feedforward Control

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“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

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Although analog electronic process controllers are considered a newer…

Vibration Sensors

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Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

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Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

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Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

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Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

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Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

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Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

On/off Electric Motor Control Circuits

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An electric motor is often used as a discrete control element in a…

New Content

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Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

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The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

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Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

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To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Colorimetric and Potentiometric pH Measurement

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pH is the measurement of the hydrogen ion activity in a liquid…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

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It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Proportional-only Offset

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A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Fiber Optic Data Communication

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Light has long been used as a long-range signaling medium. While…

Digital Representation of Text

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Binary patterns are not just able to represent numerical values. Given…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

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The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Pressure Switches

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A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

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Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

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A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

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At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

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Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

The Concept of Differentiation

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Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

The Stuxnet Virus

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In November of 2007 a new computer virus was submitted to a virus…

Safety Gas Analyzers

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Process analyzers measure the concentration of specific substances for…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

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In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

What are Simple Machines?

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A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

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Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

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Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

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A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

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Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

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In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…