Latest Automotive Education

Categories

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Vibration Monitoring Hardware

Textbook

The following photograph shows a large air blower in a wastewater…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Vibration Sensors

Textbook

Sensors used to measure vibration come in three basic types:…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Digital Data Communication Theory

Textbook

One of the great benefits of digital technology is the ability to…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Unit Conversions and Physical Constants

Textbook

Converting between disparate units of measurement is the bane of many…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Circuit Failure Analysis

Textbook

Perhaps the most valuable skill an instrument technician can possess…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Equivalent Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

Impedance in a series circuit is the orthogonal sum of resistance and…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

Textbook

First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

Learning PLC programming is a very important skill. If your job…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Electrical Resistance Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

Textbook

The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Pneumatic Sensing Elements

Textbook

Most pneumatic instruments use a simple but highly sensitive mechanism…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause confusion for…

Variable-area Flowmeters

Textbook

An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

Textbook

Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…