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Electromagnetism Basics

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The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Pressure Switches

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A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

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Constructing PID control systems using discrete components is a…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

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Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

Calibration Errors and Testing

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The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Applications of Spectroscopy for Analytical Measurement

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Much of our knowledge about atomic structure comes from experimental…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

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Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

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The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

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A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

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Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Rotary-stem Valves

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A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Basics of Electrical Current

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Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

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The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Temperature Switches

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A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Introduction to Power System Automation

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Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

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Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

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The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Dimensional Analysis

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An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

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Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

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Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Problem-solving by Simplification

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A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

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Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

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The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

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Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

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While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

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Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

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Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Self-balancing Pneumatic Instruments Principles

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A great many precision instruments use the principle of balance to…

Electrical Pressure Elements

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Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

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To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming Contacts and Coils

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In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Phasor Analysis of Transformer Circuits

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Three-phase AC is the dominant mode of electric power generation and…

Capacitive Level Measurement

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Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a…

Digital Representation of Numerical Data

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Process measurements are often of an analog nature: the temperature of…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

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Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

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The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

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Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

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Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

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Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

Ultrasonic (Sound) Echo Level Measurement

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A completely different way of measuring liquid level in vessels is to…