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Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Valve Failure Modes

Textbook

An important design parameter of a control valve is the position it…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Electrical Resistance Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition…

New Content

Textbook

Coy, John J. et. al. (December 2012) Sampled graphic illustrations…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Legal Code

Textbook

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License By…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols

Textbook

The three “elementary” particles of matter comprising all…

Common Educational Fallacies

Textbook

When I began teaching full-time in 1998, most of what I thought I…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Overpressure Protection Devices

Textbook

Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Digital PID Controllers

Textbook

The vast majority of PID controllers in service today are digital in…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

DC Motor Speed Control

Textbook

DC electric motors generate torque by a reaction between two magnetic…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…