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Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Chemical Reactor Temperature Control Example

Textbook

Sometimes we encounter a diversity of instrument signal standards in…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

Textbook

The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Feedback Control System Components Before we begin our discussion on…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Electrical Resistance Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Function Block Diagram (FBD) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Constructing PID control systems using discrete components is a…

Bi-metal Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Solids tend to expand when heated. The amount that a solid sample will…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Logic Programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming Contacts and Coils

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Laser Spectroscopy

Textbook

A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…