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Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

Textbook

The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Wastewater Disinfection Example

Textbook

The final step in treating wastewater before releasing it into the…

Logic Programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

How Derivatives and Integrals Relate to One Another

Textbook

First, let us review some of the properties of differentials and…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Valves can experience a number of problems, most of them either…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Laminar Flowmeters

Textbook

A unique form of differential pressure-based flow measurement deserves…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Force-balance Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous measurement…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Pneumatic PID Controllers

Textbook

A pneumatic controller receives a process variable (PV) signal as a…