the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

An Analogy for Calibration Vs Ranging

Textbook

The concepts of calibration (trimming) and ranging are often difficult…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition to an electric…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

Conservation Laws

Textbook

The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

Electrical Pressure Elements

Textbook

Several different technologies exist for the conversion of fluid…

True Mass Flowmeters

Textbook

Many traditional flowmeter technologies respond to the volumetric flow…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Logic programming in PLCs

Textbook

Although it seems each model of PLC has its own idiosyncratic standard…

2-wire (“loop-powered”) Transmitter Current Loops

Textbook

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Instruction List (IL) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

The Concept of Integration

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the consumption of propane over time for…

The HART Digital/Analog Hybrid Standard

Textbook

A technological advance introduced in the late 1980’s was HART,…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems

Textbook

A Safety Instrumented Function, or SIF, is one or more components…

Teaching Technical Practices (Labwork)

Textbook

Labwork is an essential part of any science-based curriculum. Here,…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

WirelessHART Radio Communication Standard

Textbook

An exciting development in industrial instrumentation is the…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…