Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Control Valve Characterization

Textbook

Control valves are supposed to deliver reliable, repeatable control of…

Tuning PID Controllers

Textbook

Learning how to tune PID controllers is a skill born of much practice.…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Feedforward Control

Textbook

“Feedforward” is a rather under-used control strategy…

Practical Measures of Reliability

Textbook

In reliability engineering, it is important to be able to quantity the…

Laser Spectroscopy

Textbook

A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds

Textbook

Most of these formulae appear in molecular chemical form rather than…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Transformer Basics and Principles of Operation

Textbook

The transformer is one of the most important components in all of AC…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause much confusion…

The Basics of Control Relays

Textbook

An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an…

Dimensional Analysis

Textbook

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Troubleshooting Current Loops

Textbook

A fundamental principle in instrumentation system troubleshooting is…

References

Textbook

Lipták, Béla G. et al., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Open-ended, Shorted and Properly Terminated Transmission Lines

Textbook

Many years ago, when I was first learning about electricity, I…

Elementary Thermodynamics

Textbook

Thermodynamics is the study of heat, temperature, and their related…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Electrical Resistance and Ohm’s Law

Textbook

To review, voltage is the measure of potential energy available to…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…