the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Basics of Bridge Circuits

Textbook

A bridge circuit is basically a pair of voltage dividers where the…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Periodic Table of the Elements

Textbook

All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Process and Instrument Diagrams

Textbook

The next level of detail is the Process and Instrument Diagram, or…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Metering Pumps

Textbook

A very common method for directly controlling low flow rates of fluids…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Pneumatic Sensing Elements

Textbook

Most pneumatic instruments use a simple but highly sensitive mechanism…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

Textbook

I remember first learning about the world-wide Internet, and wondering…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

One of the marks of a successful problem-solver is a habit of applying…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Problem-solving by Simplification

Textbook

A whole class of problem-solving techniques focuses on altering the…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Data Link Layer

Textbook

Like so many other industrial data networks, FOUNDATION Fieldbus is an…

Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures

Textbook

Any physical location in an industrial facility harboring the…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

The purpose of calibration is to ensure the input and output of an…

Laser Spectroscopy

Textbook

A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Industrial Instrumentation Summary for Teachers

Textbook

To summarize some of the key points and concepts for teaching: Do not…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Directional Overcurrent (67) Protection

Textbook

While 50 and 51 (instantaneous and time overcurrent) relay functions…

Change-of-quantity Flow Measurement

Textbook

Flow, by definition, is the passage of material from one location to…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Introduction to Calculus

Textbook

Few areas of mathematics are as powerfully useful in describing and…

“Normal” status of a Process Switch

Textbook

Perhaps the most confusing aspect of discrete sensors is the…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…