Categories

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Pressure Switches

Textbook

A pressure switch is one detecting the presence of fluid pressure.…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

Learning PLC programming is a very important skill. If your job…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Motives for Compromising the Security of an Industrial Control System

Textbook

There are multiple motives for compromising the security of an…

Basic Feedback Control Principles

Textbook

Feedback Control System Components Before we begin our discussion on…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Dispersive Spectroscopy

Textbook

The dispersion of visible light into its constituent colors goes all…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Laser Spectroscopy

Textbook

A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Tube and Tube Fittings

Textbook

Tube, like pipe, is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed…

Chemiluminescence Measurement

Textbook

Recall that an exothermic chemical reaction is one that releases a net…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Memory Maps and I/O Addressing

Textbook

A wise PLC programmer once told me that the first thing any aspiring…

Displacement and Displacer Level Instrumentation

Textbook

Displacer level instruments exploit Archimedes’ Principle to…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Understanding Area, Volume and Common Geometry

Textbook

Area refers to the size of two-dimensional surface. Volume refers to…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

Split-range Control

Textbook

There are many process control applications in the industry where it…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Segment Troubleshooting

Textbook

Feedback obtained from industrial users of FF reveal a common pattern:…

Pneumatic Actuator Response

Textbook

A limitation inherent to pneumatic valve actuators is the amount of…

Introduction to Power System Automation

Textbook

Those familiar with industrial instrumentation will find much within…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…