Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Textbook

A positive displacement flowmeter is a cyclic mechanism built to pass…

Learn Fundamental Principles, not Procedures

Textbook

“As to methods there may be a million and then some, but…

Digital Multimeter (DMM) Tips and Tricks

Textbook

The digital multimeter (DMM) is quite possibly the most useful tool in…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

A quantitative PID tuning procedure is a step-by-step approach leading…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 Protocol Device Configuration and Commissioning

Textbook

Fieldbus devices require far more attention in their initial setup and…

EIA/TIA-232, 422, and 485 Networks

Textbook

Some of the simplest types of digital communication networks found in…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Flow Measurement from Differential Pressure

Textbook

Take for instance the problem of measuring fluid flow through a pipe.…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…

Electrical Sources and Electronic Load

Textbook

By definition, a source is a device delivering energy into a system,…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Ions in Liquid Solutions

Textbook

Many liquid substances undergo a process whereby their constituent…

Instrument Turndown (Rangedown)

Textbook

An important performance parameter for transmitter instruments is…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Relating 4 to 20 mA Signals to Instrument Variables

Textbook

A 4 to 20 mA current signal represents some signal along a 0 to 100…

How to Teach Yourself PLC Programming

Textbook

First and foremost, you need to get your very own PLC to work with.…

Electromagnetism Basics

Textbook

The fundamental principle of electromagnetism is that an electric…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Calibration Errors and Testing

Textbook

The efficient identification and correction of instrument calibration…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

Fundamental Principles of Industrial Instrumentation

Textbook

Shown here is a partial listing of principles applied in the subject…

Flow Measurement in Open Channels

Textbook

Measuring the flow rate of liquid through an open channel is not…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Programming

Textbook

In the United States, the most common language used to program PLCs is…

Dampers and Louvres

Textbook

A damper (otherwise known as a louvre) is a multi-element flow control…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Antennas and Resonant Circuits (Tank Circuits)

Textbook

Capacitors store energy in electric fields, proportional to the square…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…