Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Common Diagnostic Mistakes in Control Systems

Textbook

Volumes could be written about poor diagnostic technique. The…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Analog Signal Conditioning and Referencing

Textbook

Modern analog-to-digital converters are phenomenally accurate,…

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

Filled-bulb Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Filled-bulb systems exploit the principle of fluid expansion to…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

High-reliability Control Systems

Textbook

As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, instrumentation safety…

4 to 20 mA Analog Current Signals

Textbook

The most popular form of signal transmission used in modern industrial…

VSD and VFD Motor Drive Features

Textbook

Modern DC and AC motor drives provide features useful when using…

Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) Spectroscopy

Textbook

Using filter cells to eliminate wavelengths associated with…

Derivative (Rate) Control

Textbook

The final element of PID control is the “D” term, which…

Hand Switches and Stackable Switches

Textbook

A hand switch is exactly what the name implies: an electrical switch…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Heuristic PID Tuning Procedures

Textbook

In contrast to quantitative tuning procedures where definite numerical…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…

Self-regulating, Integrating, and Runaway Process Characteristics

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule of controller tuning is to know the…

Material Volume Measurement

Textbook

A variety of technologies exist to measure the quantity of stored…

Fluid Mechanics

Textbook

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow: to freely change…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Resistance, Reactance and Impedance

Textbook

Resistance (\(R\)) is the dissipative opposition to an electric…

Analytical Measurements of Chemical Compositions

Textbook

A great many chemical composition measurements may be made indirectly…

Polyphase AC Power

Textbook

“Polyphase” means “many phases,” describing a…

Introduction to Protective Relaying

Textbook

Circuit breakers used in residential, commercial, and light industrial…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Weighfeeders

Textbook

A special type flowmeter suited for powdered or granular solids is the…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Temperature Switches

Textbook

A temperature switch is one detecting the temperature of some…

Proper Care and Feeding of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

Perhaps the most important rule to obey when using pneumatic…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Relation Control

Textbook

A control strategy similar to ratio control is relation control. This…

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceability

Textbook

As defined previously, calibration means the comparison and adjustment…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Diagnosing Feedback Control Problems

Textbook

Negative feedback systems, in general, tend to cause much confusion…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pneumatic Instruments

Textbook

The disadvantages of pneumatic instruments are painfully evident to…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Overpressure Protection Devices

Textbook

Fluid pressure exerts force on any surface area it contacts, as…

Error Corrections

Textbook

Abdelaziz, Ahmed (June 2014) Identified numerous typographical errors…