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Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

the Negative Consequences of Poor PID Controller Tuning

Textbook

Much has been written about the benefits of robust PID control.…

A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Techniques

Textbook

In this section I will show screenshots from a process loop simulation…

Controller Output Current Loops

Textbook

The simplest form of 4-20 mA current loop is the type used to…

Auxiliary and Lockout (86) Relays

Textbook

An important type of “accessory” relay, especially for…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Relay Circuits and Ladder Diagrams

Textbook

Electromechanical relays may be connected together to perform logic…

Interconnected Generators

Textbook

Any power grid large enough to meet the demand of an entire nation…

Ethernet networks: Repeaters, Cabling and Switching Hubs

Textbook

An engineer named Bob Metcalfe conceived the idea of Ethernet in 1973,…

On/off Shut-off Valves

Textbook

An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a…

Radio-energy Pulse in Guided-wave Radar Level Measurement

Textbook

The following animation shows how a radio-energy pulse travels down…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Metric Prefixes and Prefix Scale

Textbook

Structured Text (ST) Programming

Textbook

(Will be addressed in future versions of this book)

ANSI/IEEE Function Number Codes

Textbook

In the United States, the ANSI and IEEE organizations have…

Laser Spectroscopy

Textbook

A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Analog Electronic PID Controllers

Textbook

Constructing PID control systems using discrete components is a…

Basic Operation of a Gas Chromatograph

Textbook

This animation shows the basic operation of a gas chromatograph,…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Numerical Differentiation

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of differentiation is finding the…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

The International System of Units

Textbook

The very purpose of physics is to quantitatively describe and explain…

Policy-based Fortifications

Textbook

These fortifications focus on human behavior rather than system design…

Basic Components Common to all Radio Systems

Textbook

“Radio” systems use electromagnetic fields to communicate…

Vibration Physics

Textbook

One very convenient feature of waves is that their properties are…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Textbook

A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

General Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

A variety of problem-solving techniques have been presented for…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters)

Textbook

The advent of “smart” field instruments containing…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

Textbook

The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Introduction to Optical Analysis

Textbook

Light is known to interact with matter in very specific ways, which…

Practical PID Controller Features

Textbook

In order for any PID controller to be practical, it must be able to do…

Scientific System diagnosis and Scientific Reasoning

Textbook

At the root of successful system diagnosis is a rigorous adherence to…

Introduction to Modbus

Textbook

Developed by the Modicon company (the original manufacturer of the…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

Visualizing the actions of P, I, and D tuning parameters using graphs…

Conservation Laws

Textbook

The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…

Concepts and Laws of Probability

Textbook

While the term “probability” may evoke images of…

Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Instruments)

Textbook

Linearity of Measurement Instruments The purpose of calibration is to…