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Rotating Magnetic Fields in Three-phase AC Induction Motors

Textbook

The following animation shows how the “rotating” magnetic…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Molecular Quantities

Textbook

Sample sizes of chemical substances are often measured in moles. One…

Boiler Water Level Control System Example

Textbook

Steam boilers are very common in industry, principally because steam…

Electrical Sensors: Potential Transformers (PTs) and Current Transformers (CTs)

Textbook

Potential transformers step voltage up or down to prioritize…

The Concept of Differentiation

Textbook

Suppose we wished to measure the rate of propane gas flow through a…

Energy in Chemical Reactions

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A chemical reaction resulting in a net release of energy is called…

P, I, and D Responses Graphed

Textbook

Visualizing the actions of P, I, and D tuning parameters using graphs…

Standardized Volumetric Flow

Textbook

The majority of flowmeter technologies operate on the principle of…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Radiative Temperature Measurement

Textbook

Temperature measurement devices may be classified into two broad…

Transfer Function Analysis

Textbook

An extremely important topic in engineering is that of transfer…

Symbolic Versus Numerical Calculus

Textbook

Calculus has a reputation for being difficult to learn, and with good…

Ladder Diagram (LD) Structure Commands

Textbook

The simple PLC ladder diagram (LD) commands consist of contacts and…

Phasors, Phase Shift and Phasor Algebra

Textbook

Phasors are to AC circuit quantities as polarity is to DC circuit…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Difference Between Calibration and Re-ranging

Textbook

To calibrate an instrument means to check and adjust (if necessary)…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…