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Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Temperature Sensor Accessories

Textbook

One of the most important accessories for any temperature-sensing…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Non-contact Temperature Sensors

Textbook

Virtually any mass above absolute zero temperature emits…

Analyzer Sample Systems

Textbook

Some analyzers measure the composition of a process stream by directly…

Laser Spectroscopy

Textbook

A laser is a light source emitting waves of light that not only…

Instantaneous and Time-overcurrent (50/51) Protection

Textbook

Perhaps the most basic and necessary protective relay function is…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Chromatography: Methods, Detectors and Species

Textbook

Imagine a major marathon race, where hundreds of runners gather in one…

Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs)

Textbook

Human-machine interfaces, or HMIs, are a critical part of nearly all…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Proportional-only Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Valve Packing

Textbook

Regardless of valve type, all stem-actuated control valves require…

Valve Positioners

Textbook

The reason why a pneumatic control valve’s stem position…

Thermocouple Types, Junctions, Connector and Tip Styles

Textbook

RTDs are completely passive sensing elements, requiring the…

Using Manometers for Measuring Pressure

Textbook

A very simple device used to measure pressure is the manometer: a…

Velocity-based Flowmeters

Textbook

The Law of Continuity for fluids states that the product of mass…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Calibration Standards to Produce and Measure Physical Quantities

Textbook

As previously defined, calibration refers to the checking and…

Measuring Electrical Conductivity

Textbook

The electrical conductivity of liquids is an important analytical…

Differential (87) Current Protection

Textbook

One of the fundamental laws of electric circuits is Kirchhoff’s…

Sliding-stem Valves

Textbook

A sliding-stem valve body is one where the moving parts slide with a…

4-wire “Passive” Versus “Active” Output Transmitters

Textbook

Some self-powered (4-wire) analog electronic transmitters are designed…

Radiation Level Measurement

Textbook

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of…

Conservation Laws

Textbook

The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created…

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

Textbook

Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Function Blocks

Textbook

Data-processing modules within FF systems are known as function…

FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Philosophy

Textbook

To understand just how different FOUNDATION Fieldbus is from other…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Instrument Identification Tags

Textbook

Up until this point, we have explored various types of instrumentation…

Memory Maps and I/O Addressing

Textbook

A wise PLC programmer once told me that the first thing any aspiring…

Level Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Disturbances in the liquid tend to complicate liquid level…

Understanding the Calculus Concepts of Differentiation and Integration

Textbook

The following animation shows the calculus concepts of differentiation…

Fluid Power Systems

Textbook

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long…

Proximity Switches

Textbook

A proximity switch is one detecting the proximity (closeness) of some…

Periodic Table of the Elements

Textbook

All substances are comprised of various elements in various…

Single-line Electrical Diagrams

Textbook

Electrical power grids primarily consist of three-phase AC circuits.…

Root Mean Square (RMS) Quantities

Textbook

It is often useful to express the amplitude of an alternating quantity…

Design-based Fortifications

Textbook

A design-based fortification is one rooted in technical details of…

Weight-based Level Measurement

Textbook

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by…

Understanding How Three-phase Electric Motors Work

Textbook

The key to understanding how three-phase electric motors work is to…

Null-balance Voltage Measurement

Textbook

A number of different sensors used in instrumentation generate DC…