Process Flow Diagrams

Textbook

To show a practical process example, let’s examine three…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Mathematical Problem-solving Techniques

Textbook

Some problem-solving techniques are unique to quantitative problems,…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

Pneumatic Sensing Elements

Textbook

Most pneumatic instruments use a simple but highly sensitive mechanism…

Limit, Selector, and Override Controls

Textbook

Another category of control strategies involves the use of signal…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Ratio Control

Textbook

Most people reading this book have likely had the experience of…

Numerical Integration

Textbook

As we have seen, the concept of integration is finding the…

Differential Pressure Transmitters

Textbook

One of the most common, and most useful, pressure measuring…

Rotary-stem Valves

Textbook

A different strategy for controlling the flow of fluid is to insert a…

Actuator Bench-set

Textbook

Valve actuators provide force to move control valve trim. For precise…

Teaching Diagnostic Principles and Practices

Textbook

Diagnostic ability is arguably the most difficult skill to develop…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Control Valve Actuators

Textbook

The purpose of a control valve actuator is to provide the motive force…

Indicators, Recorders, Process Switches and Alarms

Textbook

So far we have just looked at instruments that sense, control, and…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Pipe and Pipe Fittings

Textbook

Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for…

Basics of Electrical Current

Textbook

Current is the name we give to the motion of electric charges from a…

What are Simple Machines?

Textbook

A machine in the broad sense of the word is any device designed to…

Pressure-based Flowmeters

Textbook

All masses require force to accelerate (we can also think of this in…

Understanding Electrical Power Grids

Textbook

The term “grid” refers to the conductors and equipment…

Glossary of Cyber-security Terms

Textbook

Cyber-security seems to have its own vocabulary, ranging from unwieldy…

Transmitter Damping Adjustments

Textbook

The vast majority of modern process transmitters (both analog and…

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Textbook

At the next OSI Reference Model layer (layer 4) is a set of protocols…

Assessing Student Learning

Textbook

As a general rule, high achievement only takes place in an atmosphere…

Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation

Textbook

As we have seen, feedforward control is a way to improve the stability…

Circuit Breakers and Disconnects

Textbook

Circuit breakers are the “final control elements” of the…

Integral (Reset) Control

Textbook

Imagine a liquid-level control system for a vessel, where the position…

Non-dispersive Luft Detector Spectroscopy

Textbook

Non-dispersive analysis, while newer in discovery than dispersive…

Control Valve Sizing

Textbook

When control valves operate between fully open and fully shut, they…

Limit Switches

Textbook

A limit switch detects the physical motion of an object by direct…

Analog to Digital Conversion and ADCs

Textbook

In order to provide an interface between the internal (digital) world…

On/off Control (Bang-bang Control)

Textbook

Once while working as an instrument technician in an aluminum foundry,…

Electrical Signal and Control Wiring

Textbook

There is much to be said for neatness of assembly in electrical signal…

Active Reading and Outlining Documentation

Textbook

Learning from reading printed text is a kind of problem-solving…

Introduction to Inductors and Inductance

Textbook

Any conductor possesses a characteristic called inductance: the…

Stoichiometry and the Law of Mass Conservation

Textbook

Stoichiometry is the accounting of atoms before and after a chemical…

Valve Seat Leakage

Textbook

In some process applications, it is important that the control valve…

Pressure Sensor Accessories

Textbook

Multiple accessories exist for pressure-sensing devices to function…

Flow Switches

Textbook

A flow switch is one detecting the flow of some fluid through a pipe.…

Pilot Valves and Pneumatic Amplifying Relays

Textbook

Self-balancing mechanisms consisting solely of a baffle/nozzle…

Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Laws

Textbook

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified…

Classical Mechanics

Textbook

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian mechanics in honor of…

Introduction to Capacitors and Capacitance

Textbook

Any two electrical conductors separated by an insulating medium…

Rotating Phasor in Three-dimensional Form

Textbook

The following animation shows a rotating phasor in three-dimensional…

Common Control Valve Problems

Textbook

Control valves are subject to a number of common problems. This…

The Difference Between Series and Parallel Circuits

Textbook

In addition to Ohm’s Law, we have a set of rules describing how…

Cascade Control

Textbook

A simple control system drawn in block diagram form looks like this:…

Digital PID Algorithms

Textbook

Instrument technicians should not have to concern themselves over the…

Techniques for Analyzing Control Strategies

Textbook

Control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feedforward, and those…

Proportional-only Offset

Textbook

A fundamental limitation of proportional control has to do with its…

Fluorescence Measurement

Textbook

When a high-energy photon strikes an atom, it may eject one of the…

Instrument and Process Equipment Symbols

Textbook

This section shows some of the many instrument symbols found in…

Process/Instrument Suitability

Textbook

Every flow-measuring instrument exploits a physical principle to…

Supervisory Control

Textbook

In a manually-controlled process, a human operator directly actuates…

Mechanical Vibration Switches

Textbook

A much simpler alternative to continuous vibration sensors…

Periodic Table of the Ions

Textbook

Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets)

Textbook

Finally, we arrive at the loop diagram (sometimes called a loop sheet)…

Level Gauges (Sightglasses)

Textbook

Level gauges are perhaps the simplest indicating instrument for liquid…